Zambeef Products Plc (ZAMB.zm) HY2010 Interim Report

first_imgZambeef Products Plc (ZAMB.zm) listed on the Lusaka Securities Exchange under the Agri-industrial sector has released it’s 2010 interim results for the half year.For more information about Zambeef Products Plc (ZAMB.zm) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Zambeef Products Plc (ZAMB.zm) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Zambeef Products Plc (ZAMB.zm)  2010 interim results for the half year.Company ProfileZambeef Products Plc, listed on the Lusaka Securities Exchange, is the largest vertically integrated food retailing brand in Zambia. The Group is principally involved in the production, processing, distribution and retailing of beef, chicken, pork, milk, dairy products, eggs, stock feed and flour. The Group also has large row cropping operations (principally maize, soya beans and wheat), with approximately 7,971 hectares of row crops under irrigation which are planted twice a year, and a further 8,623 hectares of rainfed/dryland crops available for planting each year.last_img read more

United Docks Ltd (UTDL.mu) 2015 Abridged Report

first_imgUnited Docks Ltd (UTDL.mu) listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Property sector has released it’s 2015 abridged results.For more information about United Docks Ltd (UTDL.mu) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the United Docks Ltd (UTDL.mu) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: United Docks Ltd (UTDL.mu)  2015 abridged results.Company ProfileUnited Docks Limited is a Mauritian real estate development company that indulges in real estate development, strategic investment, property management, warehousing as well as logistics solutions in the Republic of Mauritius. The company also engages in different segments of real estate which include business parks, office buildings and mixed-use developments. United Docks Limited is listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.last_img read more

MTN Ghana (MTN.gh) Q12019 Interim Report

first_imgMTN Ghana (MTN.gh) listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange under the Technology sector has released it’s 2019 interim results for the first quarter.For more information about MTN Ghana (MTN.gh) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the MTN Ghana (MTN.gh) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: MTN Ghana (MTN.gh)  2019 interim results for the first quarter.Company ProfileMTN Ghana is the leading provider of mobile telecommunications services in Ghana. The Company has over 17.83 million subscribers with a market share of approximately 55.09% as at December 2017. MTN Ghana, in line with its vision and mission, continues to lead the delivery of a bold new Digital World to customers and to make their lives a whole lot brighter. MTN Ghana is listed on the Ghana Stock Exchangelast_img read more

Why I’d buy the Tesco share now

first_img Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. Access this special “Green Industrial Revolution” presentation now Image: Tesco See all posts by Manika Premsingh When I wrote about supermarket stock Tesco (LSE: TSCO) last month, I was hesitant to buy the share just yet. My conclusion was that even though its share price could rise, it would be a good idea to wait for another update before deciding. Today Tesco released that update. Sales growth slows downThe FTSE 100 company reported a 1% increase in like-for-like (LFL) sales for the 13 weeks ending 29 May. LFL sales measure the change in sales across the same stores over time. The advantage of this measure is that it removes any bump up in sales if a new store is opened or a decline in sales if one is closed. 5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…This measure showed a sharp decline from the 7.9% increase seen for the full-year 2020-21. To be fair, some of the decline was to be expected. In its outlook at the time of its full-year results, Tesco had expected additional gains in UK sales to fall as restrictions eased. The UK market accounts for the bulk of the supermarket’s retail revenues. Still, the extent of the decline is glaring according to me. This probably explains why the Tesco share price is down by 3% as I write. Positives in the updateI do think, however, that there are some positives in Tesco’s latest trading update as well. It also gives us a comparison against LFL sales two years ago, which is helpful because it was a more typical year than 2020. This shows a more encouraging growth of 8.1%, with the UK’s growth at 9.3%.I also like its strong online sales growth for the UK. Compared to 2020, online sales grew 22.2%, and a huge 81.6% compared to 2019. Online orders surged across grocery retailers last year. While it was clearly pandemic-driven, it is also believed that some of the shift to online sales is permanent. How much of it will continue post-lockdowns was a wait and watch. Now we have some proof that this is actually the case. I see this in my own choices as a consumer. It is far easier, quicker, and even more cost effective to order groceries online now and I have no desire to change that.I reckon that in-store sales can also pick up greater pace over the rest of the year. A healthier economy over the rest of 2021 can result in increased consumer demand across products and services. Decent dividend yieldThe Tesco share is also somewhat attractive from a dividend standpoint. It has a yield of 4.3%, which is not the highest, but it is still decent in my view. My takeaway for the Tesco share priceThe big challenge with the share is that its price has gone nowhere in years. I see the value of the stock, but also that it is neither the best growth stock nor the best income stock around. On balance, though, I think if it sustains its performance it could reap rewards for investors over time. I would buy the Tesco share now, but with awareness that it might not pay off. It was released in November 2020, and make no mistake:It’s happening.The UK Government’s 10-point plan for a new “Green Industrial Revolution.”PriceWaterhouse Coopers believes this trend will cost £400billion……That’s just here in Britain over the next 10 years.Worldwide, the Green Industrial Revolution could be worth TRILLIONS.It’s why I’m urging all investors to read this special presentation carefully, and learn how you can uncover the 5 companies that we believe are poised to profit from this gargantuan trend ahead! Manika Premsingh has no position in the shares mentioned. The Motley Fool UK has recommended Tesco. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this.center_img Manika Premsingh | Friday, 18th June, 2021 | More on: TSCO Why I’d buy the Tesco share now I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. Enter Your Email Address Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares Our 5 Top Shares for the New “Green Industrial Revolution”last_img read more

Terrace House 2 / Hala Younes, Architecture and Landscape

first_img Houses CopyAbout this officeHala Younes, Architecture and LandscapeOfficeFollowProductConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesChatineLebanonPublished on August 28, 2019Cite: “Terrace House 2 / Hala Younes, Architecture and Landscape” 28 Aug 2019. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesTechnowoodSiding Façade SystemWindowsMitrexSolar WindowMetal PanelsAurubisPatinated Copper: Nordic Green/Blue/Turquoise/SpecialMetal PanelsDri-DesignMetal Panels – CopperIn architectureSikaBuilding Envelope SystemsExterior DeckingLunawoodThermowood DeckingMembranesEffisusFaçade Protection – Breather+Metal PanelsPure + FreeFormCustom Metal Cladding – Legacy Fund 1 BuildingWood Boards / HPL PanelsInvestwoodWood Fiber Partition Walls – ValchromatDoorsLinvisibileLinvisibile FILO 10 Vertical Pivot Door | BrezzaSkylightsFAKROEnergy-efficient roof window FTT ThermoToilets / BidetsBritexToilets – Accessible Centurion PanMore products »Save世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream “COPY” Save this picture!© Samer Rawadi+ 16Curated by Paula Pintos Share Year:  Terrace House 2 / Hala Younes, Architecture and LandscapeSave this projectSaveTerrace House 2 / Hala Younes, Architecture and Landscape “COPY” ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/923760/terrace-house-2-hala-younes-architecture-and-landscape Clipboard ArchDaily Photographs ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/923760/terrace-house-2-hala-younes-architecture-and-landscape Clipboardcenter_img Terrace House 2 / Hala Younes, Architecture and Landscape Lebanon Area:  420 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Architects: Hala Younes, Architecture and Landscape Area Area of this architecture project CopyHouses•Chatine, Lebanon Manufacturers: HawaMechanical Engineering:WTAStructural Engineering:Nabil SalibiCollaborators:Jean Nmeir, Leen Shamlati, Dany ArackjiGarden Area:15,000 m2City:ChatineCountry:LebanonMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Samer RawadiRecommended ProductsDoorsGorter HatchesRoof Hatch – RHT AluminiumWoodAccoyaAccoya® Cladding, Siding & FacadesDoorsECLISSESliding Pocket Door – ECLISSE LuceWoodHESS TIMBERTimber – GLT HybridText description provided by the architects. The house is situated in Chatine, Mount Lebanon, it is built in a mountainous setting named Qalʽet el Hsar, meaning “the besieged fortress” in Arabic. The site had been a gravel quarry abandoned 30 years ago, which left a sunken space surrounded by remaining rock formations.Save this picture!© Géraldine BruneelSave this picture!Lower Floor PlanSave this picture!© Géraldine BruneelEven though the ground has been dramatically reshaped by the stone extraction activities, the project is delicately inserted into the edge of this protected place.Save this picture!© Géraldine BruneelThe house consists of two main levels; the upper one includes the family spaces and a protected terrace while the lower one engages with the outdoor and includes the receptions and service areas. The slight rotation between the two levels gives the lower one a favorable north view and the upper one exposure to the eastern sun.Save this picture!© Géraldine BruneelThe two levels are connected by a void linking a south-oriented skylight with the natural rocks of the cave beneath. The skylight ensures solar heating in winter and contributes together with the cave in providing natural ventilation in summer. The house is reduced to two raw concrete slabs anchored in the rocks and a wood-framed glass skin thus inscribing it in the site like a seasonal shelter.Save this picture!© Géraldine BruneelSave this picture!Cross SectionSave this picture!© Géraldine BruneelProject gallerySee allShow lessEspace Pompidou Gymnasium / enia architectesSelected ProjectsWorld’s Tallest Passive House Skyscraper Designed for VancouverArchitecture News Share Projects 2017 Photographs:  Samer Rawadi, Géraldine Bruneel Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project last_img read more

Chicago cops kill two more, protests mount

first_imgChicago, Dec. 30 — Police here shot and killed Quintonio LeGreir, 19, a college student home on break from Northern Illinois University, and Bettie Jones, a downstairs neighbor, on Dec. 26. Jones was 55, the mother of five and a community activist in the organization Action Now. Both victims are Black.  The police statement reads, “The 55 year old female victim was accidentally struck and tragically killed … deepest condolences to the victim’s family and friends.”LeGreir’s mother told Chicago station WBBM her son was an honor student in college and high school, who suffered some emotional problems.  “Seven bullets were put in my son, seven. Eight shots were fired. One hit an innocent lady who was just opening her door. Something is wrong with this picture.” Residents at the scene said police could have used a stun gun or other nonlethal means to subdue LeGrier. Jones just opened her door, waiting for police to respond, then was shot along with LeGrier.A vigil was held in support of Jones’ family on Dec. 29, bringing together neighbors and community members questioning this unnecessary killing. Friends and relatives of LeGrier wrapped blue and white balloons around a basketball goal during a candlelight vigil across the street from the high school from which he graduated.Mayor held responsible  Meanwhile, protesters marched in front of Mayor Emanuel’s home. They held him responsible for the recent rash of police murders and the city’s cover-ups. The call for his resignation has been getting louder and louder and includes a demonstration at City Hall set for Dec 31. Following the double killing, Emanuel cut short his family vacation and returned to Chicago. He issued a statement calling for a review of the shootings by the Independent Police Review Authority. But, according to the Better Government Association, the IPRA has investigated nearly 400 police shootings since 2007 and found only one to be unjustified.  Several demonstrators were taken in ambulances to the hospital after falling in the snow on the unshoveled sidewalk in front of Emanuel’s home. Will Emanuel be ticketed and charged for unshoveled walkways? Others in Chicago now face a fine, recently increased from $50 to $500.A wrongful death lawsuit was filed Dec. 28 on behalf of Quintonio LeGrier. The lawsuit says LeGrier never had a weapon and did nothing to suggest he was a threat before police opened fire. The civil suit also alleges police forced his father to go immediately to a police station to answer questions, even while his son was dying.  The suit states there is a video of at least some of the incident as it unfolded. One of the eight shots fired hit LeGrier in the buttocks, indicating he had his back turned to police.Laquan McDonald shootingMeanwhile, Jason Van Dyke, the officer charged with first-degree murder in the shooting death of Laquan McDonald entered a not-guilty plea at his arraignment on Dec. 29. His lawyer is asking for a change of venue, claiming Van Dyke cannot get a fair trial in the Chicago area. But the family is asking that the entire trial be televised to hold public officials accountable to the people of Chicago.  There is an atmosphere in the city of the “people versus the police” and a challenge to the cops’ technique of acting at will with violence and impunity. Well-known Chicago activist Mike Siviwe Elliott was arrested early in Dec. 29 while exercising his right to observe and video an officer who was getting rough with a young woman on a commuter train.  When Elliott pulled back his hand from the officer trying to snatch his phone, he was accused of assaulting the officer and placed under arrest. His phone has been turned over to State’s Attorney Alvarez. Elliott’s press statement said, “My arrest is further evidence that the police here are not being held accountable on any level,” and it is part of “a violent backlash to the countless nonviolent protests and demands of Chicago activists for justice and police accountability.”People of Chicago are demanding an end to police murders and government cover-ups. They are building coalitions around the city to end police killing of Black and Brown youth. A true people’s tribunal is needed to build unity and expose the real role of the police in Chicago and around the country. The cops’ role is to protect the private property of the rich from the masses through racism and state repression. On Feb. 20, a meeting at the United Electrical Workers Hall at 37 S. Ashland in Chicago is scheduled. Speakers will address building a movement to stop police terror in our cities. The movement will fight for the freedom of political prisoners, including Mumia Abdul-Jamal in Pennsylvania and Rev. Pinkney in Michigan. For more information contact www.facebook.com/Chicago WWP.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

Pasadena-based Poplar Forest Capital LLC Named Finalist for Emerging Manager of the Year Awards

first_img Subscribe EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Community News First Heatwave Expected Next Week Business News Pasadena-based Poplar Forest Capital LLC Named Finalist for Emerging Manager of the Year Awards From STAFF REPORTS Published on Monday, February 23, 2015 | 11:08 am Community News Pasadena-based Poplar Forest Capital LLC has been named a finalist for the Emerging Manager of the Year Awards by Emerging Manager Monthly, a publication focused solely on Emerging Investment Managers.Poplar Forest was selected as a finalist (Top 3) for Mid-Cap Equity. Nominees in seven categories were ranked based on the following criterion: excess returns over the benchmark, performance versus peers, product asset growth and product asset percentage growth, with the final 10 managers in each class ranked by information ratio.“The Top 3 managers in each category will be handed over to a committee made up of industry experts in the plan sponsor and consulting communities. The committee will evaluate the merits of each firm based on quantitative and qualitative measures before selecting the winners, who will be announced in the April issue of Emerging Manager Monthly,” according to the publication.“We are proud to be selected as a finalist for this award and believe it highlights the merits of our contrarian value investment philosophy,” commented Steve Burlingame, Portfolio Manager of the Poplar Forest Outliers Strategy.Poplar Forest Capital, 70 South Lake Avenue, Pasadena, (626) 304-6000 or visit www.poplarforestllc.com. Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday HerbeautyThe Biggest Signs You Want To Be With Your Girlfriend ForeverHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty7 Most Startling Movie Moments We Didn’t Realize Were InsensitiveHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyDo You Feel Like Hollywood Celebrities All Look A Bit Similar?HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyKate Beckinsale Was Shamed For Being “Too Old” To Wear A BikiniHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyHe Is Totally In Love With You If He Does These 7 ThingsHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyInstall These Measures To Keep Your Household Safe From Covid19HerbeautyHerbeauty Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadenacenter_img More Cool Stuff Make a comment Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * 7 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Business News Top of the News faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Darrel Done BusinessVirtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m.last_img read more

Donegal Manager takes up part-time role as coach with Celtic

first_img Business Matters Ep 45 – Boyd Robinson, Annette Houston & Michael Margey Donegal Manager takes up part-time role as coach with Celtic Previous articleSDLP conference to give full backing to Malin Head campaignNext articleWitness who withheld evidence in William McKeeney murder trial jailed News Highland Pinterest WhatsApp WhatsApp Pinterest Google+ Twitter Guidelines for reopening of hospitality sector published LUH system challenged by however, work to reduce risk to patients ongoing – Dr Hamilton Google+center_img Facebook Facebook News RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Donegal football manager Jim McGuinness has been appointed as a performance consultant with Celtic soccer club, however, he will also remain in charge of the All-Ireland champions.Celtic released a statement this morning stating that McGuinness had joined the Glasgow club.He will be based at Lennoxtown and will help in the development of the club’s young players; he will commence his role at the end of November.Former All Ireland winner with Donegal and Highland Radio GAA pundit Martin McHugh says the move to Celtic can actually be an advantage to Donegal:[podcast]http://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/mchugh.mp3[/podcast] Almost 10,000 appointments cancelled in Saolta Hospital Group this week By News Highland – November 9, 2012 Twitter Calls for maternity restrictions to be lifted at LUH Need for issues with Mica redress scheme to be addressed raised in Seanad alsolast_img read more

Circus comes to town

first_imgSkip Latest Stories Troy falls to No. 13 Clemson Jaine Treadwell | The MessengerCate and Charlie Barron got face decorations before enjoying the fun and excitement of the Loomis Bros. Circus Monday afternoon. Plans underway for historic Pike County celebration Pike County Sheriff’s Office offering community child ID kits The Penny Hoarder Issues “Urgent” Alert: 6 Companies… ASWA All-State basketball teams announced The Alabama Sports Writers Association announced the 2021 All-State Boys and Girls Basketball Teams. A total of six players were… read more Print Article Email the author From babies in arms to granddads holding tightly to little one’s hands, they came.The Loomis Bros. Circus, billed as America’s Greatest Circus, opened Monday at Cattlemen Park and provided a rather-rare treat for “kids” of all ages.The Loomis Bros. Circus is a “real” 3-ring circus featuring elephants, tigers, ponies, clowns, daredevils, acrobats, a live band and just the fun of being at a circus. By Jaine Treadwell By The Penny Hoarder Around the WebMd: Do This Immediately if You Have Diabetes (Watch)Blood Sugar BlasterIf You Have Ringing Ears Do This Immediately (Ends Tinnitus)Healthier LivingWomen Only: Stretch This Muscle to Stop Bladder Leakage (Watch)Patriot Health ZoneHave an Enlarged Prostate? Urologist Reveals: Do This Immediately (Watch)Healthier LivingRemoving Moles & Skin Tags Has Never Been This EasyEssential Health32-second Stretch Ends Back Pain & Sciatica (Watch)Healthier LivingThe content you see here is paid for by the advertiser or content provider whose link you click on, and is recommended to you by Revcontent. As the leading platform for native advertising and content recommendation, Revcontent uses interest based targeting to select content that we think will be of particular interest to you. We encourage you to view your opt out options in Revcontent’s Privacy PolicyWant your content to appear on sites like this?Increase Your Engagement Now!Want to report this publisher’s content as misinformation?Submit a ReportGot it, thanks!Remove Content Link?Please choose a reason below:Fake NewsMisleadingNot InterestedOffensiveRepetitiveSubmitCancel You Might Like An older gentleman, “Just call me Red,” said he remembers going to the circus as a little boy“I was scared to death,” he said. “I’d never seen tigers and elephants except in pictures in a book. I was afraid. What scared me the most was the women on the trapeze and the men on those high wires. I was afraid they were going to fall.”Red, laughingly, said children today probably don’t experience those kinds of fears. “But it’s good for kids to get a scare put in them every now and then.”The circus may not be as the older generation remembers it. But it’s still the circus.P.T. Barnum said that the noblest art is that of making others happy.On Monday afternoon, Justin Loomis and “America’s Greatest Circus,” artfully, made many others happy. Sponsored Content The circus featured two performances, afternoon and night, and will be back at Cattleman Park today at 4:30 and 7:30 p.m. Tickets are available at the gate.Evelyn Prescott brought her two granddaughters to the Monday afternoon circus because she doubts that “the circus” will be around many more years.“The Ringling Brothers Circus shut down and it was the biggest and the best,” Prescott said. “But, I hope the circus will always be around but, if it’s not, I want these girls to be able to say they’ve been to a circus.” For some, it was the nostalgia of the circus that brought them to the Loomis Bros. Circus. For others, it was just something fun to do or something different to do.For Lorie Welch, the circus was a chance to see animals she had never seen before, “except in pictures.” For Autumn Murphy’s “Nannie” it was the opportunity for them to do something together they had never done before. For Cate Barron and Charlie Barron, the circus was a “change of face” done by talented women with a brush in hand and a spray of glitter. For Colton Horner, the circus is all about cotton candy. For Cadi Bowden, it was an opportunity to introduce something new to a friend and to share the time together.Tashia Snell was at the circus to “once again” experience the thrill of a three-ring circus.“There’s just something about a circus,” she said. Remember America’s heroes on Memorial Day Book Nook to reopen Published 9:12 pm Monday, March 29, 2021 Circus comes to townlast_img read more

Weak electrostatic waves near the upper hybrid frequency: A comparison between theory and experiment

first_imgTwo types of generating mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observations of weak electrostatic waves near the local upper hybrid frequency fuh. In this paper data from the wave and plasma diagnostic experiments on GEOS 1 are presented with simultaneously observed particle data in an attempt to identify the generating mechanism. The electron data contain two sources of free energy: a highly anisotropic “pancake” distribution in the warm (20 eV to ∼1 keV) plasma and a loss cone type distribution in the hot (>few keV) plasma. This leads us to consider a coherent generating mechanism. A model of the plasma distribution, with cold, warm and hot components is constructed and linear instability calculations are presented. It is shown that the relatively large resonant perpendicular velocities in the loss cone distribution generate instabilities at small perpendicular wave numbers preferentially in the upper hybrid band since the wave frequency can lie midway between the gyroharmonics where cyclotron damping is reduced. The calculations are able to reproduce the spectral characteristics observed by previous spacecraft over a range of cold plasma densities. The temporal growth rates are comparable to those obtained previously for strong electrostatic emissions near fuh, but it is shown that the unstable wave number region is an order of magnitude smaller. Thus it is argued that the waves remain weak since they are quickly refracted out of resonance. It is demonstrated that when there is a significant amount of warm plasma present the strongest natural emission can be used to derive the total plasma density, cold plus warm plus hot, and not the cold plasma density, and that the warm plasma introduces new regions of small group Velocities which result in fine structure in the wave spectrum. The effects of the warm plasma and particularly the pancake distribution are discussed in connection With the ray propagation of these and other classes of much stronger emissions.last_img read more